Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) or diabetes continues to increase. The reason is due to metabolic disorders due to chronically elevated blood sugar levels above normal. The main problem with this disease is the disruption of the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas gland.
Insulin functions to regulate the use of glucose by muscles, fat, or other cells in the body. If insulin production is reduced, blood sugar levels become high and disturbance of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. In general, DM is divided into two, namely, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 DM occurs because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, whereas type 2 diabetes occurs due to impaired insulin action, which can also be accompanied by damage to pancreatic cells.
Many people think that this disease only lurks adults. But it turns out children can also experience it. According to the Chairperson of the Indonesian Pediatrician Association (IDAI), Dr Aman B. Pulungan, Sp. A (K), the type of DM that mostly attacks children is type 1.
“Maybe the figure reaches 80%, the remaining 20% is type 2. But type 2 is a term rich in the phenomenon of the iceberg. So it’s not much (DM type 2, but do not know,” said Dr Aman when Okezone met on the Media Briefing ‘Children Can also Diabetes’ in the Ministry of Health Building, Jakarta, Wednesday (10/31/2018).
Type 1 diabetes is the most diagnosed in the 10-14 years age group with 403 cases. Then the age group of 5-9 years reached 275 cases, the age group of fewer than five years reached 146 cases. At least in the age group above 15 years, 25 cases.
“But do not rule out the possibility of type 2 could be more because of the current lifestyle. The problem is that type 2 is difficult to detect because if the symptoms are not severe, he does not come (check). Later, after 18 years, it will be discovered,” explained Dr Aman.
Further explained by him, the information search system in Indonesia related to the risk of diabetes in children has not been so good when compared to other countries. “If we dare to make rich Japan, try before entering urine test school, I guarantee a lot (at risk of diabetes). If you see my data, almost 40% (children) insulin resistance,” added Dr Aman.
Also, there are still wrong perceptions in the community. So far, there are still many who believe that new diabetes will occur to someone if his parents are also diabetes, aka heredity. Everyone has the same possibility of developing diabetes.
“If the hereditary factor in type 1 diabetes is not. If type 2 can, yes or no. Type 1 causes auto-immune,” said Dr Aman.
He said if, in type 1 diabetes, the cause could be due to Coxsackievirus infection and poliovirus. If a child is infected with the virus, the risk increases to DM. Another reason is vitamin D deficiency. “So anything that causes autoimmune can have an impact on diabetes,” added Dr Aman.
Not to mention diabetes in children is often misdiagnosed. Some consider it appendices, asthma, abscesses, and itching. “Moreover, it was never thought that a child could develop diabetes. Try now, dare not face the fact that many children are affected by diabetes and hypertension? Obese children have almost 35% high blood pressure, which if left into metabolic syndrome,” concluded Dr Aman.