What is diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic autoimmune disease caused by disorders of blood sugar regulation. That’s why diabetes is also often referred to as diabetes or diabetes.
Blood sugar disorders can be caused by various things which include:
• Lack of insulin production by the pancreas
• Lack of body response to insulin
• The influence of other hormones that inhibit the performance of insulin
If this disease is not treated with proper treatment, it can cause various dangerous complications, and can even threaten the lives of sufferers.
Types of diabetes mellitus
Based on what causes it, diabetes is divided into several types, namely:
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack and damage cells that produce the hormone insulin, so the pancreas cannot provide the hormone. This will cause the body to lack insulin and increase blood glucose levels.
This condition generally attacks patients under the age of 40 years, especially in adolescence. Usually, the symptoms of this disease are detected more quickly at a younger generation, especially in childhood or adolescence.
The cause of this condition is unclear. Experts suspect that the purpose of type 2 diabetes may occur due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, you might have a higher risk of developing this condition if:
• your parents or siblings who have this condition
• in the state of exposure to viral diseases
• emergence of autoantibodies
• Vitamin D deficiency, consuming cow’s milk or formula milk, and cereal before the age of 4 months. Although it does not directly cause this condition, it is still risky.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. The incidence rate reaches 90-95 per cent of all cases of diabetes in the world. This condition is called adult-onset diabetes because it is more common in adults.
Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 sufferers continue to produce insulin but not enough. The exact cause of why type 2 appears is uncertain, but experts believe that a combination of genetic and environmental factors play a role in triggering the occurrence of this sugar disease.
Being overweight is a significant trigger for diabetes, but not all type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are obese.
Gestational diabetes is diabetes that only occurs in pregnant women. This disease can cause problems for both mother and baby if left untreated. If treated quickly correctly, this condition usually resolves entirely after giving birth.
Diabetes insipidus is a different condition caused by the inability of the kidneys to store water.
This disease is usually caused by genetic syndromes, surgery, side effects of drugs, malnutrition, infection, and other diseases. This condition is rare and can be treated.
Signs & Symptoms
What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes often does not show any symptoms at first. Many people have never been aware of being sick with diabetes for a long time because they have never experienced significant symptoms.
However, here are some typical signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus that you need to know:
• Often feel thirsty
• Frequent urination, sometimes it happens every hour and is called polyuria
• Weak, tired, and powerless
• Recurrent infections, such as skin, vaginal, thrush or urinary tract infections
Less common symptoms:
• Nausea or vomiting
• In women, vaginal infections often occur
• Fungal infections or canker sores
• Dry mouth
• Wounds are difficult to heal
• Itching on the skin, especially in the groin or vaginal area
Other symptoms of diabetes that you should be aware of:
1. Feet sick and numb
Very high blood sugar levels will cause damage to the nerves of the body. Not all people experience this symptom.
However, people who have diabetes will feel numbness, tingling, and pain in the body, especially in the legs. Symptoms like this usually occur in someone who has had diabetes for five years or more.
2. Blurred vision
Blurred vision of diabetes (a term for people with diabetes) often results from a disruption of the lens (cataracts) or an eye nerve disorder (diabetic retinopathy).
The condition of high blood sugar can trigger a buildup of protein in the lens of the eye so that the cataract process. Uncontrolled blood sugar can also cause small blood vessels in the eye to be disrupted and even broken so that the eye nerve (retina) cannot work correctly.
3. Skin problems
High insulin levels encourage pigments that cause black spots on the skin. If there are changes that are felt on the surface, it could be an early sign that you have diabetes or diabetes. Changes can be marked by skin that becomes dark, scaly until first wrinkles appear.
4. Susceptible to infection or disease
A person with early symptoms of diabetes tends to be more vulnerable to bacterial and fungal infections because they have a decreased immune system.
These microorganisms need glucose as a source of energy. Infection can grow in folds of warm and moist skin, such as between fingers and toes, under the breast, or in or around the genitals.
5. Red and swollen gums
Diabetes can weaken your immune system and your ability to fight infection, thereby increasing the risk of disease in the gums and jaws of your teeth. Your gums can be swollen, or you may have a wound.
6. Old wounds heal
High blood sugar can affect blood flow and cause nerve damage in areas of the body that disrupt your body’s natural healing process.
So, if you have a wound that does not heal or it gets worse, sees a doctor immediately.
7. Get hungry quickly
Lack of insulin to enter sugar into cells makes muscles and organs weak, and the body runs out of energy. The brain will think it lacks power due to lack of food, so the body tries to increase food intake by sending hunger signals.
8. Weight loss suddenly
Although appetite increases, people with diabetes can experience weight loss, even very drastic. Be careful when changing to 5 per cent of body weight.
Because the ability of glucose metabolism is impaired, the body will use anything else as ‘fuel’, such as muscle and fat so that people will look thin.
Knowing the symptoms early will make it easier for you to deal with these symptoms and can even prevent them.
When should I go to the doctor?
Most people are often not aware of diabetes mellitus until their blood sugar has soared, causing severe symptoms.
Therefore, if you experience a variety of symptoms above, or you suspect diabetes, do not hesitate to visit a doctor immediately.
What are the causes of diabetes mellitus?
Before knowing the cause of diabetes, you need to understand how the body processes glucose. Glucose is essential for the body because it works as a source of energy for cells and tissues of the body, especially the brain.
Glucose comes from the food you eat and from being stored as a reserve in the liver (liver). The type of glucose stored in the liver is called glycogen.
If you have not eaten automatically, your blood sugar levels will below. To prevent this, the liver will break down glycogen into glucose and balance your blood sugar levels.
Causes of type 1 diabetes
The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, experts suspect that this condition is caused because of your immune system attacks and destroys pancreatic cells that are responsible for producing the hormone insulin.
The hormone insulin makes glucose more easily absorbed by the body’s cells, thereby reducing sugar levels in the bloodstream. However, if you experience pancreatic dysfunction, insulin production will also be disrupted.
As a result, the body is unable to produce enough insulin hormones, thus increasing blood sugar levels.
Causes of type 2 diabetes
Diabetes is caused by fat, liver, and muscle cells in your body, not responding to insulin appropriately. In the medical world, this condition is called insulin resistance.
Insulin resistance alone makes cells unable to receive blood sugar to then be processed into energy. This then makes the body assume that it lacks sugar, so it breaks down glycogen again.
In the end, sugar will continue to accumulate in the blood, and there will be high blood sugar levels called hyperglycemia.
Causes of gestational diabetes
During pregnancy, the placenta will produce several hormones to support your pregnancy. Unfortunately, the hormones produced will make cells in the body resistant to insulin.
Unfortunately, the pancreas cannot always produce extra insulin to overcome this resistance. As a result, blood sugar builds up in the blood and causes gestational diabetes.
What are the risk factors for diabetes mellitus?
Quoting on the Mayo Clinic page, here are various things that can put you at high risk of developing diabetes mellitus.
Type 1 diabetes
• Family history
• Exposed to certain viral infections
• Damage to immune system cells (autoantibodies)
• Vitamin D deficiency
Type 2 diabetes
• Age above 45 years
• Aka obesity
• Lazy to move
• Family medical history
• Have a family history of this disease
• Have an account of PCOS
• Have had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy
• Has diabetes before pregnancy
• Have had a miscarriage or stillbirth without knowing the cause
• Obesity before pregnancy
• Pregnant over 30 years old
Medication and treatment methods
How to treat diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is an incurable disease. But that does not mean you feel hopeless.
Diabetes or diabetes can still be overcome and controlled. One of them, by taking diabetes mellitus medicine. Depending on the type, here are some choices for diabetes medications:
Type 1 diabetes drug
When you experience this condition, the immune system will attack cells that produce insulin so that the insulin level provided by the body decreases. Therefore, doctors will usually be given diabetes medications in the form of insulin, which will be injected into the patient’s body every day.
Some types of insulin include:
• Fast-acting insulin. This insulin will usually be given when you only have a small amount of time to inject insulin, such as when the sugar level exceeds the target.
• I insulin with slow action. The opposite of insulin with fast response, insulin with deliberate movement is usually used when you have a longer time to inject insulin. But compared to fast-acting insulin, slow-acting insulin is used less frequently.
• Insulin with intermediate action. Although the injection time for this type of insulin is relatively long, medium action of insulin is usually combined with faster response, to maximise the benefits of injecting.
Type 2 diabetes drug
People who experience diabetes are generally not able to use insulin as it should. Not all people with diabetes need medication. In some cases, doctors may only ask patients to change their lifestyle to become healthier, such as regular exercise and undergoing a special diet.
Now, when both methods are not enough, then the doctor will prescribe some diabetes mellitus drugs to help lower blood sugar. Some diabetes mellitus drugs that are often mandated by doctors are metformin, pioglitazone, sulfonylureas, agonists, repaglinide, acarbose, gliptin, and nateglinide.
However, you must be vigilant because the diabetes mellitus drug can cause several side effects such as bloating and diarrhoea. The good news, these side effects do not always appear on everyone. Discuss with your doctor if you experience side effects of the drug.
What are some lifestyle changes or home remedies to treat diabetes mellitus?
1. Maintain diet and nutritional intake
Food for people with diabetes is almost the same as healthy people. The difference is, your food is more regulated than them. Doctors will usually ask you to consume more nutritious foods, low in fat and calories so that you can control your blood sugar levels.
What kind of food should be eaten? Here are the guidelines:
• Foods made from whole grains or complex carbohydrates such as brown rice, baked potatoes, oatmeal, bread and cereals from whole grains.
• Replace your sugar with a low-calorie sweetener and contains chromium to improve insulin function in the body, so that it can help control blood sugar.
• Lean, steamed, roasted, and roasted lean meat.
• Vegetables that are processed by boiling, steaming, roasting or consumed raw. Good vegetables are consumed for sufferers, such as broccoli and spinach.
• Fresh fruits. If you want to make it juice, you should not add sugar.
• Nuts, including soybeans in the form of steamed tofu, are cooked for soup and sauteed.
• Low-fat dairy products and eggs.
• Fish such as tuna, salmon, sardines and mackerel.
If you adopt a healthy diet, the bodyweight remains ideal, stable blood sugar levels, and avoid the risk of heart disease.
2. Exercise regularly
The benefits of regular exercise for diabetes are that it helps maintain weight loss; insulin can lower blood sugar more efficiently, helps the heart and lungs work better and gives you more energy.
No need to be too heavy You can start walking, swimming, cycling near your home, activities to clean the house, or start a hobby of gardening is a good idea to keep you active.
Try exercising at least three times a week for about 30 to 45 minutes. If you are the type of person who rarely exercises, try 5 to 10 minutes at the beginning of the sport, from here, you can increase the time.
If your blood sugar level is less than 100-120, eat an apple or a glass of milk before you exercise. When you are using, bring snacks so that your blood sugar does not drop.
Tips if you use insulin
• Exercise after eating, not before eating.
• Test your blood sugar before, during and after exercise. Don’t exercise if your blood sugar level is low, less than 70.
• Avoid using before going to sleep because it can cause your blood sugar to drop at night.
Tips if you don’t use insulin
• See your doctor, if you intend to take a fitness class or exercise program.
• Test your blood sugar before and after exercising if you take diabetes mellitus. Make sure your blood sugar is not lower than 70.
3. Diligently check your blood sugar every day
Blood sugar levels should be monitored regularly. This is a crucial way to overcome and maintain your blood sugar levels remain normal. Blood sugar checks can also provide information about your blood glucose levels at a moment’s notice. You can use a blood sugar test device called a glucometer. With instructions for use as follows:
1. Make sure your hands have been washed, insert the test strip paper into a blood sugar meter.
2. Slowly, prick the fingertips with a sterile needle until the blood comes out
3. If the blood comes out a little, slowly massage your fingers until the blood comes out enough
4. Hold and hold the end of the test strip until the blood drips on the test strip, and wait for the results.
5. Your blood glucose level will appear on the device screen
Glucose levels are generally different before and after you eat. For healthy blood sugar levels before meals, the levels are around 70-130 mg / dL. Then, the blood sugar level two hours after eating should be less than 180 mg / dL and at bedtime around 100-140 mg / dL.
Total blood sugar levels can describe your health condition. High blood sugar levels are considered as a sign that your body is not healthy. Record blood sugar levels every time you check blood sugar levels.
4. Make sure you always take medicine or insulin injections
Balance the blood sugar levels in people with diabetes sometimes can not be adequately maintained only through the adoption of a healthy diet and regular exercise. You may also need medication to handle it.
There are several types of drugs (usually in tablet form) that can be used for this condition (oral hypoglycemic medicines). You may also be given a combination of two or more drugs to control your blood sugar levels. Medications commonly given are metformin, sulfonylureas, pioglitazone, gliptin, agonists, acarbose, nateglinide and repaglinide.
In some instances, medications in tablet form may not be sufficient enough to treat diabetes or diabetes, so you need insulin therapy.
Based on the dosage and how to use it, this therapy can be given to replace or be given along with drugs as mentioned above.
How to prevent diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes or diabetes can be prevented by regular exercise, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and maintaining normal blood sugar levels.
1. Achieve a healthy weight
Obesity is one of the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes. A calorie and low-fat diet are highly recommended as the best way to lose weight and prevent diabetes.
2. Eat lots of fruits and vegetables
By eating fresh vegetables and fruits every day, you can reduce your risk of diabetes by 22 per cent. This fact is taken according to the results of a study of diets for 12 years from nearly 22 thousand adults.
Risk reduction is directly related to how much fruit and vegetables you consume.
3. Reduce sugar
To maintain healthy blood sugar levels, you must limit your consumption of sugar, but that does not mean you are anti-sugar. You can replace sugar with low-calorie, sugar-free sweeteners to prevent diabetes and control your calorie intake.
4. Actively exercising
Try to exercise at least 30 minutes a day 3-5 times a week to maximise the achievement of your target body weight and also to reduce your risk of diabetes.
Also, exercise can reduce blood sugar levels and increase insulin levels.