Diabetes or the full name of diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder due to a pancreas that is unable to produce enough insulin or unable to use the insulin that has been produced expertly.
Insulin is a hormone that has the function to regulate blood sugar balance in the body. With the disruption of the role of the pancreas and insulin, the body will be burdened with high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia).
Now the condition of the accumulation of sugar levels in the body that are not appropriately absorbed will cause various disorders in the organs of the patient’s body. If not controlled properly, this disease can lead to multiple complications that endanger the lives of the sufferer.
Glucose is needed by body cells as the primary energy source. The core of this disease is, the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas is unable to regulate glucose concentration in the body which ultimately disrupt internal organs and potentially cause complications
Types of Diabetes
Diabetes is classified into two categories, namely, type 1 and type 2. Diabetes type 1, formerly called insulin-dependent, is characterised by a lack of insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is called non-insulin dependent, which is described by the creation of insulin which is sufficient but not used effectively by the body. Of all diabetics, 90% are type 2 diabetics, and this is by what is explained in the diabetes information issued by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia.
At present, the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) estimates that 382 million people were living with diabetes in 2013. Of those 382 million, 175 million have not been diagnosed. This means that there are hundreds of millions of people who are threatened with diabetes and have a massive potential for complications. This number will increase in 2035, with an estimated number of 592 million people.
In the end, this disease is a scourge for the people of Indonesia and even the world. Instant lifestyle and the ignorance of the community in regulating eating patterns is suspected as a cause of the massive disease. There are many ways to prevent this disease from you and your family. Also, even if for example, someone has been diagnosed with diabetes, there are many ways to maintain a person’s health condition.
Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus
The first to be discussed is the cause or risk factor for someone to develop diabetes. In the case of type 1 diabetes, people will be more susceptible to type 1 diabetes if there is a family history of type 1 diabetes. This means that genetic factors play an essential role in the causes of type 1 diabetes.
A virus can also cause type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes attacks more white people than other races and most often strikes ages 4-7 years and 10-14 years. In type 2 diabetes, the causes are more diverse and can go undetected for years. People will be more susceptible to type 2 diabetes if they have the following risk factors.
The first is being overweight or obese and has a family history of type 2 diabetes, as well as being less active, meaning physical activity will help control weight, burn glucose as energy, and make body cells more sensitive to insulin.
The next factor is age. In type 2 diabetes, the higher the risk of diabetes is in line with increasing age and have high blood pressure (hypertension). The last is to have proper cholesterol levels but high triglyceride levels.
Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 have similar symptoms. Symptoms of diabetes include feeling thirsty often. Frequent urination, especially at night, often feeling very hungry, weight loss for no apparent reason, reduced muscle mass, and there are ketones in the urine.
Ketones are waste products from the breakdown of muscle and fat that results from the body that cannot use sugar as an energy source. In addition to the above symptoms, there are other symptoms that you and your family need to be aware of. For example, some wounds are painful to heal, blurred vision, and for men, erectile dysfunction or impotence occurs. If you or someone near you experience the symptoms mentioned above, you should be aware that you have diabetes.
But you can’t make a self-diagnosis. This means that you can observe symptoms and not disconnect what happens to you, including signs of a particular disease. The wisest thing you can do is to come to the doctor and check yourself if you have diabetes mellitus.
Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus
To test whether someone has diabetes or not, there are several ways you can do. To all the tests carried out is to measure the level of sugar in the blood; if the concentration of sugar in the blood exceeds a specific limit, then the person is categorised as having diabetes.
The first test is a blood test when this test is done at random times. If the results show a blood sugar level of more than 200 mg / dL, the patient is diagnosed with diabetes. There is also a fasting blood sugar test which measures blood sugar when the person is fasting. If the blood sugar is> 100 mg / dL, the person is negative with diabetes.
If the value is 100-125 mg / dL, it indicates that the person has pre-diabetes, and if the result is <126 mg / dL, the person has diabetes. In addition to these two tests, there is still a glucose tolerance test and an HhA1C test.
Ways to Control Diabetes The way to treat someone with diabetes is to go on a diabetes diet. A diabetes diet is a diet to prevent someone from excess glucose for consumption. Diabetic patients are required to regulate their intake by consuming more fruits, vegetables, protein, and whole grains, as well as foods low in calories and fat. In addition to mentor diet, people with diabetes are also required to reduce their blood sugar levels by exercising regularly, at least 10-30 minutes every day.
Besides these things, treatment is also needed. Treatment can be in the form of insulin therapy to regulate blood sugar. This therapy is done by giving additional insulin by injection. The doctor will adjust the dosage and type of insulin given.
In people with severe type 1 diabetes, doctors can recommend pancreatic transplant surgery to replace the damaged pancreas. In people with type 2 diabetes, the doctor will prescribe medicines, one of which is metformin.
This drug has a function to reduce glucose levels in the liver. In a simple way to treat diabetes is to maintain blood sugar levels so as not to rise dramatically. This can be done by adjusting diet, exercising so that blood sugar can burn, insulin injection, pancreas transplantation, and consumption of glucose-lowering drugs in the liver